A collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization. Based on technological concepts of cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things, it facilitates the vision of the Smart Factory.
Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions.
Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and humans in real time. Via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain.